Acronym for the “College of Arts and Sciences.” Always use the official name on first reference. On second reference in informal publications, A&S may be used if the meaning will be clear to readers. If you intend to use the acronym on second reference, let readers know this by setting it off in parentheses directly after the first official reference.
- a.m., p.m.
Use without 0s to designate hours and lowercase with periods: 8 a.m.; 11 p.m.
Acronym for the “American Association of University Professors.” Always use the official name on first reference. On second reference in informal publications, AAUP may be used if the meaning will be clear to readers. If you intend to use the acronym on second reference, let readers know this by setting it off in parentheses directly after the first official reference.
- abbreviations, acronyms
For companies, associations, organizations, etc., use the official name on first reference. On second reference, an abbreviation or acronym may be used if the meaning will be clear to readers. If you intend to use an abbreviation or acronym for second reference, let readers know this by setting it off in parentheses directly after the first official reference: She is on staff at the Institute for Cellular Therapeutics (ICT). Part of her work at the ICT involves studying sickle cell anemia.
Avoid acronyms and abbreviations that are used only within a given unit.
For all usages the University of Louisville may be abbreviated as UofL on second reference, written with no space after the "U" and before the "L." Never use the university monogram, UofL, as a substitute for UofL in text or headlines.
NOTE: UofL magazine is the copyrighted name of the university's quarterly publication and, therefore, an exception to this rule.
- academic degrees
Lowercase degree names: The department offers a master of arts and a master of arts in teaching.
With the exception of alumni sections of campus publications, avoid abbreviations: Jane Smith earned her bachelor's degree in English and then went on to gain a master's in biology.
When you do need to use a degree abbreviation, set it off with commas: John Doe, `99B.A., is a member of UofL's alumni band. To save space in an alumni publication's class notes sections, omit the periods: '87BA. In features, news stories, etc., omit the periods in degree abbreviations consisting of three or more letters: He received an MBA in 1987.
EXCEPTION: Degree abbreviations consisting of three or more letters that use a combination of upper and lowercase letters require periods: Ph.D.; Ed.D.
Avoid redundancies: Donald Miller, M.D., NOT Dr. Donald Miller, M.D.
Use an apostrophe when writing bachelor's degree, specialist's degree or master's degree but not when naming the full degree: bachelor of arts degree.
NOTE: When the "19" or "20" is omitted from a written year, an apostrophe is used to indicate the contraction: '87. Be aware that some word-processing programs will incorrectly insert a single open-quotation mark (the tail of the mark will be turned toward the number) rather than an apostrophe (the tail of the mark is turned away from the number), which the writer must then change manually.
- academic departments/units
Capitalize only when using the full and official name of the department or unit: Department of Sociology; Brandeis School of Law. Lowercase when using a reference that is not the official name: the sociology department; the law school.
Capitalize proper nouns and adjectives in all references: the English department; the Speed engineering school.
"University," "college" and "department" are never capitalized unless they part of the official name or the first word of a sentence.
- academic disciplines
In text, capitalize only proper nouns and adjectives: members of the chemistry faculty; two English professors.
- academic titles
Use "Dr." before a name only when the person in question has a medical degree (M.D., DMD, DDS or DVM); it is assumed that UofL faculty possess the terminal degree in their field.
Capitalize and spell out formal titles such as "president" and "chair" ONLY when they precede a name: Chair Jane Smith. Lowercase elsewhere.
Professor should always be lowercase, even when preceding a name.
Do not use academic and job titles in conjunction: Dean Jane Doe NOT Dean Dr. Jane Doe.
Do not use an academic title with a degree: professor Jane Smith or Jane Smith, Ph.D., NOT professor Jane Smith, Ph.D.
If a professor holds an endowed chair or special professorship, capitalize the full name of the title: John Doe, Dunley Professor of Academic Law. The full name of the chair often includes first names and middle initials of the donor; these can be omitted in normal use. Lowercase modifiers (per AP Style Guide, see "Titles: Past and Future" entry): department Chairman John Jones; acting Provost John Hancock.
See also titles
Acronym for the “Adult Commuter Center Evening Student Services.” Always use the official name on first reference. On second reference in informal usage, ACCESS is acceptable if the meaning will be clear to readers. If you intend to use the acronym on second reference, let readers know this by setting it off in parentheses directly after the first official reference.
Although ACT still officially stands for American College Test, the abbreviation is sufficient even on first reference: ACT, no periods.
- Ad Astra
Signature sculpture at the School of Medicine.
Acronym for the “Americans with Disabilities Act” of 1990. Always use the official name on first reference. On second reference in informal usage, ADA is acceptable if the meaning will be clear to readers. If you intend to use the acronym on second reference, let readers know this by setting it off in parentheses directly after the first official reference.
Always lowercase: adjunct professor John Thompson.
- admissions office
Use Office of Admissions on first reference. Use admissions office thereafter. The Office of Admissions handles undergraduate applications; the Graduate School deals with graduate admissions.
- adviser, advisor, advisory
Use "-er" unless "advisor" is part of an official title: The U.S. Department of Labor's Fair Labor Standards Act Advisor provides employers with information on minimum wage, overtime, child labor and record-keeping requirements; She served as an adviser to the government on this project. However, "advisory" is the correct spelling.
- affect, effect
Affect is almost always a verb that means to "influence" or "put on": How this will affect her grade is uncertain at this point or She affected an English accent because she thought it made her seem more sophisticated. Effect is nearly always a noun that means "result": The effect upon her grade is uncertain at this point. Occasionally "effect" is used as a verb in formal writing to mean "to bring about": They wanted to effect some immediate changes in their academic policy. "Affect" can be used as a noun in very narrow usage, to denote certain behavior in psychology.
- affirmative action statement
An equal opportunity statement must be printed on all publications directed to audiences outside the university community.
CATALOGS AND HANDBOOKS: The full text of the statement must be included in all student catalogs, student handbooks and official employee handbooks: The University of Louisville is an equal opportunity institution and does not discriminate against persons because of race, religion, sex, age, handicap, color, citizenship or national origin.
MARKETING MATERIALS: Advertisements, brochures and other marketing materials aimed at students or potential students must include the following abbreviated equal opportunity statement: The University of Louisville is an equal opportunity institution.
Questions regarding this policy should be directed to the Office of Affirmative Action at 852-6538.
- African American, black
Although AP style is to hyphenate African American, our constituents tell us they prefer the unhyphenated version. "African American" and "black" can be used interchangeably in an article or document, but use African American on first reference.
NOTE: No hyphen is used when African American acts as an adjective because it is a compound word formed from unhyphenated proper names. (See Manual of Style, compound adjectives entry.)
Generally, avoid referring to a person's age unless it is relevant to your copy. Do not refer to the age of a university faculty or staff member without his or her permission.
When age is relevant, always use numerals: He was 3 years old. Ages that are expressed as adjectives before a noun or that substitute for a noun use hyphens: The 3-year-old boy wandered off. Police are searching for a 3-year-old who wandered off from his home yesterday.
- alma mater
The college one attended (lowercase); Alma Mater (uppercase, in italics) is the song.
- alumna, alumnae (pl.)
Feminine noun for a graduate of the institution.
Masculine or mixed masculine and feminine plural noun; one graduate is an alumnus (masculine) or an alumna (feminine).
- Alumni Association
University of Louisville (or UofL) Alumni Association is the organization's official name. Use the full name on first reference. Alumni Association (capitalized) is acceptable afterward.
Masculine singular form of a graduate.
- Alzheimer’s disease
Do not capitalize "disease." "Alzheimer's" (alone) is acceptable on second reference.
- American Association of University Professors
On first reference, use the full name. Second reference may be AAUP or "the association."
- among, between
"Between" is used to show the relationship between two entities; "among" when more than two are involved: It was a choice between red and blue. It was a choice among red, blue and yellow. However, "between" is correct when expressing the relationships of three or more items considered one pair at a time: Negotiations on a debate format are under way between the network and the Ford, Carter and McCarthy committees.
Do not use an ampersand (&) in running text unless it is part of a name.
EXCEPTIONS: In informal use (such as in Portal), A&S is acceptable as a second reference for the College of Arts and Sciences. Also, in a list where space is an issue an ampersand is allowed.
Do not use this construction.
Do not use an apostrophe when forming plurals of dates or abbreviations: 1890s, 1920s, M.D.s, Ph.D.s
- Arts and Sciences, College of
A&S is acceptable on second reference in informal use.
- Asian American
Do not hyphenate, even when used as an adjective because it is a compound word formed from unhyphenated proper names. (See Manual of Style, compound adjectives entry.)
- athletic association
Officially the University of Louisville Athletic Association; second reference, athletic association.
- athletics director
NOT "athletic" director. Use lowercase except before a name: Joan Doe, athletics director at the university; Athletics Director Joan Doe spoke at the conference.
Abbreviate company," "corporation," "incorporated" and "limited" when part of a name; do not set off with commas: the Coca-Cola Co., Rock Island Line Inc. NOTE: When referring to a company, "Co." and "Inc." may be omitted entirely in all but the most formal settings or when needed for clarity.
Abbreviate "junior" and "senior" as part of a name; do not set off with commas: John Doe Jr.
Note that ampersands (&) are not used in running text.
Steer clear of B.S., M.A., Ph.D. and such when possible.
United States is spelled out when standing alone: She traveled throughout the United States. The abbreviation is appropriate when used as an adjective: U.S. government.
See also academic degrees
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